Friday, February 12, 2010

Prenatal care

A doctor performs a prenatal exam.Prenatal care refers to the medical and nursing care recommended for women before and during pregnancy. The aim of good prenatal care is to detect any potential problems early, to prevent them if possible (through recommendations on adequate nutrition, exercise, vitamin intake etc), and to direct the woman to appropriate specialists, hospitals, etc. if necessary. The availability of routine prenatal care has played a part in reducing maternal death rates and miscarriages as well as birth defects, low birth weight, and other preventable infant problems in the developed world[citation needed].

While availability of prenatal care has considerable personal health and social benefits, socioeconomic problems prevent its universal adoption in many developed as well as developing nations.

One prenatal practice is for the expecting mother to consume vitamins with at least 400 mcg of folic acid to help prevent neural tube defects.

Prenatal care generally consists of:

monthly visits during the first two trimesters (from week 1–28)

biweekly from 28 to week 36 of pregnancy

weekly after week 36 (delivery at week 38–40)

Assessment of parental needs and family dynamic

Physical examination

Physical examinations generally consist of:

Collection of (mother's) medical history

Checking (mother's) blood pressure

(Mother's) height and weight

Pelvic exam

Doppler fetal heart rate monitoring

(Mother's) blood and urine tests

Discussion with caregiver


Obstetric ultrasounds are most commonly performed during the second trimester at approximately week 20. Ultrasounds are considered relatively safe and have been used for over 35 years for monitoring pregnancy.

Among other things, ultrasounds are used to:

Diagnose pregnancy (uncommon)

Check for multiple fetuses

Determine the sex of the fetus

Assess possible risks to the mother (e.g., miscarriage, blighted ovum, ectopic pregnancy, or a molar pregnancy condition)

Check for fetal malformation (e.g., club foot, spina bifida, cleft palate, clenched fists)

Determine if an intrauterine growth retardation condition exists

Note the development of fetal body parts (e.g., heart, brain, liver, stomach, skull, other bones)

Check the amniotic fluid and umbilical cord for possible problems

Determine due date (based on measurements and relative developmental progress)

Generally an ultrasound is ordered whenever an abnormality is suspected or along a schedule similar to the following:

7 weeks — confirm pregnancy, ensure that it's neither molar or ectopic, determine due date

13–14 weeks (some areas) — evaluate the possibility of Down Syndrome

18–20 weeks — see the expanded list above

34 weeks (some areas) — evaluate size, verify placental position

Suddenly cold and hot will affect fetal development

Adults can feel hot and cold changes, and add or reduce the clothing. Will fetus in the mother’s womb be affected by temperature changing?

We know that, under normal circumstances, the amniotic fluid to maintain a certain temperature, the fetus in the amniotic fluid has been protected. However, over-cold or overheated environment is not good to growth and development of the fetus.

Pregnant women, living in hot environment, not only will lead to a emotional irritability, and it is also very unfavorable to fetus.

You must pay attention to the air-conditioning in the summer and heater in the winter. Now, almost all the building are equipped with air-conditioning, banks, department stores, cinemas, air-conditioning are particularly strong. Prolonged stay in air-conditioned room, the fetus would not have good effects. For example, pregnant women living in the cold, blood vessels to contract, easily leads to uterine contraction. Rapid uterine contraction would cause a pain. At this time, for an early pregnancy, may cause miscarriage, for a late pregnancy, there is the risk of preterm birth, even if not so, it would be uncomfortable to fetus.

In other words, although the fetus is protected in the amniotic fluid though, but do not forget that the fetus is still naked.

How to observe the baby's stool

Baby stool frequency and color shapes are closely related to the daily diet.

1, normal stool

1. The first few days after birth baby have meconium. Meconium is characterized by no odor, and viscosity, color, dark green, generally after three days the meconium will fully cleared.

2. Breast-fed baby’s stool is golden yellow, like cream, have a acidic odor, but no obvious smell, generally 3-4 times a day.

3. Cow-milk fed baby’s stool is yellow or gray, as hard-paste, slightly smell, neutral or alkaline reaction, l-2 times a day

4. The baby having rice flour; children's faeces is more soft, a little bit Gampsocleis color, odor significantly. If having vegetables, children's stools may be dishes, and all these are normal.

2, abnormal stool

If the baby's stool is green, like the thin, like water or egg soup, but uneven, with small white clots, daily bowel movement several times, is often a reflection of indigestion. If stool sour smell, foam, there may be a carbohydrate indigestion; stool has soap block or fat particles, indicating that fat indigestion; if the stool has obvious foul smell may be the protein indigestion; stool is bright red or tar-like, suggesting that gastrointestinal bleeding; stool is white is even more dangerous signal, it could be hepatitis or biliary obstruction.

Baby's head care?

1, sparse hair,

A lot of baby's hair grows slowly. There is almost no long hair. Some babies got sparse hair. Some babies got bald on the back of the head. Is there any problem with this? Is there any lack of nutrition? In fact, this phenomena is normal for most of the time. The amount of baby’s hair is related to the level of detachment of lanugo. The more detachment of lanugo, the less the baby’s hair, and seem to be growing very slow. Newborn baby is in fetal hair replacement cycle, hair growth slow is normal. And bald on back of head is because of friction.


A calcium deficiency can also cause hair loss. Therefore, if the bald is not because of friction, you should see the doctor.

2, hair split at ends

The hair dryer can cause your baby's hair bifurcation. Baby’s hair is fragile and can not take the hair dryer; often using hair dryer often easily makes your baby's hair to be withered, bifurcation. So, it is better to use a soft, dry towel for drying baby hair, do not use hair dryer.


If baby has anemia, the hair will be dry, lack luster. Baby with anemia can be pale or chlorosis, easy fatigue, low resistance to the virus.

3, head length swollen package

Some baby after birth will have a swollen package in the left or right top of the head. When give a soft touch, the press will not make babies crying, it seems that there is no pain, but it will not disappear, and slowly turn to harden, resulting eventually in a "corner"-shaped bulge, so that many new dad, new mother can remember it very clearly. In fact, this is just scalp hematoma, which results from the excessive pressures and pelvic friction during delivery. This caused rupture of subperiosteal vessels, the blood accumulate in the periosteum. When the pressure stops the bleeding, hematoma will no longer continue to increase. Followed by the hematoma can be absorbed and calcium, approximately after 2 ~ 3 months later (and some baby's hematoma may last longer, even up to a few months), tumor becomes smaller, hardened, and eventually looks as a "corner". Once this time, hematoma basically was cured.


Some mom will use syringes for taking baby hematoma, which is not desirable. Because the hematoma has been extracted, the cavity pressure has eased, will lead to continued bleeding. The bacteria enter the hematoma can lead to bacterial infections, wounds and other serious consequences. Under normal circumstances 1 ~ 2 months hematoma will naturally eliminate.

4, fontanelle

There is a soft cover with no bones on baby’s head. This is fontanelle. Tthere are two fontanelles: one is the front fontanel, at the front of heads, which consists from the parietal bone with the frontal phase; the other is a rear-fontanelle, the transition from the parietal bone and occipital bone.

Deal with infants eczema

Eczema is a common disease of infancy, medically known as allergic skin disease. Cause of this disease is complex, internal factors mainly related to the stratum corneum is thinner, and capillary network is developed, skin is rich in water and chloride endothelium, skin is sensitive to stimuli. When the baby touch the woolen goods or obtained mechanical friction, inhalation of dust or eat milk, eggs, fish, shrimp, beef and mutton and other allergenic substances, or use a strong alkaline soap lotion to wash, they will get sick.

Rush often starts from 2nd month. Most eczema appears in the cheek, zygomatic, eyebrows and forehead. In severe cases the trunk and limbs will appear. Initially, two cheek start itching and flushing, children often turn his head or clutch friction and scratch, and soon there are erythema, small grain-like papules, then into a herpes, blister broken out with yellow liquid, formed dry yellow crusts; eczema have also dry type, on small papules there is a small amount of white bran-like desquamation. Either way, eczema, there is intense itching, therefore, children are often irritable and crying, anxiety, appetite and sleep were affected. Excessive scratching can also cause skin infection and local lymph nodes, in these cases parents should promptly bring the child to the hospital. If there is no secondary infection, eczema is not danger, but often due to sunlight, ultraviolet light, heat and humidity, and other physical factors that would lead to sicker. But because the symptoms often recurrent, parents often very worried, in fact, the majority of infants with eczema may be self-healing, and only a small number of unhealed and protracted delays in the early childhood or childhood. Therefore, parents of infants with eczema do not have to be too worried, as long as the home-based care to learn how to help children through such a period.

1. Try to find out and to avoid touch allergens. You can check whether your children is food allergies, especially milk, breast milk or egg and other animal protein; and check whether the mother’s breast-feeding after having fish, shrimp, crab and other animal foods leads to baby eczema increase, if so, will have to try to avoid eating these foods.

2. Avoid to touch irritating substances, do not use alkaline soap to wash the skin, do not use cosmetics, perfumes, do not wash affected area with hot water, bath should not be too frequent.

3. Room temperature should not be too high, do not let the eczema directly exposed under sunlight, otherwise it will aggravate eczema itching. Baby’s clothes should be more lenient, not too thick too tight, 100% cotton clothing is best.

4. The room to keep the air and keep clean and avoid dust to stimulate the skin.

5. Infantile eczema treatment should be under the guidance of a dermatologist, parents must not misuse of antibiotics. Can take medicine such as chlorpheniramine, and calcium gluconate to reduce skin allergy.

6. During eczema period, do not to do immunization and BCG vaccination, avoid contact with patients with herpes simplex in order to avoid eczema herpeticum.

Learn how to correctly hold your baby

When the nurse sent the newborn baby to your arms, the young mum with great joy, watching this round and soft flesh soft flesh, and does not know how to "hold" the baby.

There are two correct postures to hold newborns: hand lift and wrist hold

Hand lift: Using To jack up the baby's back, neck, head with left hand, to jack up his small buttocks and waist with right hand. This method is more used to pick up the baby from the bed and lay down.

Wrist hold: put the baby's head on the left crook of the arm, the elbow protects baby's head, left wrist and left hand protect back and waist, right arm over the baby's legs, right hand care the baby's buttocks and waist. This approach is more commonly used.

1. Communicate with baby

When parents hold baby, they should interact with baby such as talk, sing, watch your baby with your eyes gently, gently touching, physical contact with your baby. It can stimulate your baby’s brain development. This is the first step to establish emotional, physical and mental development. It is very important for your baby.

Generally, you should hold your baby when she is weak up, and put her on the bed when she is sleeping. Newborns sleep about 20 ~ 22 hours a day. Holding at sleep can interrupt baby’s sleep.

2. Should be close to their parents left chest

Parents hold baby should put baby’s head to close to left chest to allow baby hear the parents heartbeat, which baby has been familiar with. It can make baby easy to calm down.

3. Not vertical hold

When you pick up the baby upright, you will find your baby's neck is weak, head bowed, not vertical. Because the newborn's head takes ¼ of entire length. Vertical holding baby, the baby's head weight gives pressure in the cervical spine. The baby in the ~ 2 months, cervical muscle has not been fully developed, neck muscle weakness, should be prevented the embrace of the incorrect posture of the spinal cord damage. These injuries were not easy to find, but may affect the child's future growth and development.

Newborn screening in the United States

The following tests are mandated (required to be performed on every newborn born in the state) in most of the United States. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, approximately 3,000 babies with severe disorders are identified in the United States each year using newborn screening programs at current testing rates. States vary, and not all tests are required in every state, and a few states mandate more than this. The first test to be universally mandated across the U.S. was the Guthrie test for phenylketonuria (PKU), and in many areas and hospitals, the newborn blood test is often erroneously referred to as a "PKU test", even though all states now universally test for congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, and increasing numbers of other diseases as well.

Endocrine disorders: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Congenital hypothyroidism

Blood cell disorders: sickle-cell disease (SS)

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism: Galactosemia

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism: Phenylketonuria (PKU), Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), Homocystinuria

Inborn errors of organic acid metabolism: Biotinidase deficiency

For a recent state-by-state list, see U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center. According to this resource, the only tests mandated in every state are the following:

CH - Congenital hypothyroidism

H-HPE - Benign hyperphenylalaninemia

PKU -- Phenylketonuria/hyperphenylalaninemia

HEAR - Hearing

GALT - Transferase deficient galactosemia

Usual procedures and responses to positive results

Heel blood on a filter paper card for the newborn screeningIn nearly all of the United States, the newborn screening program is a division of the state health department. State law mandates collecting a sample by pricking the heel of a newborn baby to get enough blood (typically, two to three drops) to fill a few circles on filter paper labeled with names of infant, parent, hospital, and primary physician. It is usually specified that the sample be obtained on the second or third day of life, after protein-containing feedings (i.e., breast milk or formula) have started, and the postnatal TSH surge subsided. Every hospital in the state as well as independent midwives supervising home deliveries are required to collect the papers and mail each batch each day to the central laboratory.

The state health department agency in charge of screening will either run a laboratory or contract with a laboratory to run the mandated screening tests on the filter paper samples. The goal is to report the results within a short period of time. If screens are normal, a paper report is sent to the submitting hospital and parents rarely hear about it.

If an abnormality occurs, employees of the agency, usually nurses, begin to try to reach the physician, hospital, and/or nursery by telephone. They are persistent until they can arrange an evaluation of the infant by an appropriate specialist physician (depending on the disease). The specialist will attempt to confirm the diagnosis by repeating the tests by a different method or laboratory, or by performing other corroboratory or disproving tests. Depending on the likelihood of the diagnosis and the risk of delay, the specialist will initiate treatment and provide information to the family. Performance of the program is reviewed regularly and strenuous efforts are made to maintain a system that catches every infant with these diagnoses. Guidelines for newborn screening and follow up have been published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Recommended target conditions and disorders

The following list includes most of the disorders detected by the expanded or supplemental newborn screening by mass spectrometry. This expanded screening is not yet universally mandated by most states, but may be privated purchased by parents or hospitals at a cost of approximately US$80. Perhaps one in 5,000 infants will be positive for one of the metabolic tests below (excluding the congenital infections).

Core panel

The following conditions and disorders were recommended as "core panel" by the 2005 report of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG). The incidences reported below are from their report, pages 143-307, though the rates may vary in different populations. (WARNING: The file is a very large PDF.)

Blood cell disorders

Sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) > 1 in 5,000; among African-Americans 1 in 400

Sickle-cell disease (Hb S/C) > 1 in 25,000

Hb S/Beta-Thalassemia (Hb S/Th) > 1 in 50,000

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism

Tyrosinemia I (TYR I) < 1 in 100,000

Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) < 1 in 100,000

Citrullinemia (CIT) < 1 in 100,000

Phenylketonuria (PKU) > 1 in 25,000

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) < 1 in 100,000

Homocystinuria (HCY) < 1 in 100,000

Inborn errors of organic acid metabolism

Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) > 1 in 75,000

Hydroxymethylglutaryl lyase deficiency (HMG) < 1 in 100,000

Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) < 1 in 100,000

3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCC) > 1 in 75,000

Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency (MUT) > 1 in 75,000

Methylmalonic aciduria, cblA and cblB forms (MMA, Cbl A,B) < 1 in 100,000

Beta-ketothiolase deficiency (BKT) < 1 in 100,000

Propionic acidemia (PROP) > 1 in 75,000

Multiple-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCD) < 1 in 100,000

Inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism

Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) > 1 in 75,000

Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) > 1 in 25,000

Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) > 1 in 75,000

Trifunctional protein deficiency (TFP) < 1 in 100,000

Carnitine uptake defect (CUD) < 1 in 100,000

Miscellaneous multisystem diseases

Cystic fibrosis (CF) > 1 in 5,000

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) > 1 in 5,000

Biotinidase deficiency (BIOT) > 1 in 75,000

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) > 1 in 25,000

Classical galactosemia (GALT) > 1 in 50,000

Newborn screening by other methods than blood testing

Congenital deafness (HEAR) > 1 in 5,000

Secondary targets

The following disorders are additional conditions that may be detected by screening. Many are listed as "secondary targets" by the 2005 report ACMG. Some states are now screening for more than 50 congenital conditions. Many of these are rare and unfamiliar to pediatricians and other primary health care professionals.

Blood cell disorders

Variant hemoglobinopathies (including Hb E)

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism

Tyrosinemia II


Benign hyperphenylalaninemia

Defects of biopterin cofactor biosynthesis

Defects of biopterin cofactor regeneration

Tyrosinemia III


Citrullinemia type II

Inborn errors of organic acid metabolism

Methylmalonic acidemia (Cbl C,D)

Malonic acidemia

2-Methyl 3-hydroxy butyric aciduria

Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

3-Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency

Glutaric acidemia type II

HHH syndrome (Hyperammonemia, hyperornithinemia, homocitrullinuria syndrome)

Beta-methyl crotonyl carboxylase deficiency

Adenosylcobalamin synthesis defects

Inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism

Medium/short-chain L-3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Medium-chain ketoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency

Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency

Glutaric acidemia type II

Carnitine palmityl transferase deficiency type 1

Carnitine palmityl transferase deficiency type 2

Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD)

Carnitine/acylcarnitine Translocase Deficiency (Translocase)

Short-chain hydroxy Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCHAD)

Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD)

Congenital infections

TORCH complex (Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex, Syphilis etc.), if there are indicative symptoms or mothers who may have been exposed


Miscellaneous multisystem diseases

Galactokinase deficiency

Galactose epimerase deficiency

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency

Expanded screening and controversies

With the development of tandem mass spectrometry in the early 1990s, the number of detectable diseases quickly grew, especially in the categories of fatty acid oxidation disorders and organic acidoses. Screening tests for the disorders listed below (and an increasing number of others) are now available, though not universally mandated. There is considerable variability from state to state, and sometimes from hospital to hospital within a state, on disease that are screened. To make matters more confusing, some hospitals routinely obtain supplemental screening (most of the tests below) on all infants even if not mandated by the state or requested by parents. In recent years in the United States, expanded newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry has become a profitable commercial venture.

Newborn screening tests have become a subject of political controversy in the last decade. Two California babies, Zachary Wyvill and Zachary Black, were both born with Glutaric acidemia type I. Wyvill's birth hospital only tested for the four diseases mandated by state law, while Black was born at a hospital that was participating in an expanded testing pilot program. Black's disease was treated with diet and vitamins; Wyvill's disease went undetected for over six months, and during that time the damage from the enzyme deficiency became irreversible. Birth-defects lobbyists pushing for broader and more universal standards for newborn testing cite this as an example of how much of an impact testing can have.

Instituting MS/MS screening often requires a sizable up front expenditure. When states choose to run their own programs the initial costs for equipment, training and new staff can be significant. To avoid at least a portion of the up front costs, some states such as Mississippi have chosen to contract with private labs for expanded screening. Others have chosen to form Regional Partnerships sharing both costs and resources. But for many states, screening is an integrated part of the department of health which can not or will not be easily replaced. Thus the initial expenditures can be difficult for states with tight budgets to justify. Screening fees have also increased in recent years as healthcare costs rise and more states add MS/MS screening to their programs. (See Report of Summation of Fees Charged for Newborn Screening, 2001–2005) Dollars spent for these programs may reduce resources available to other potentially lifesaving programs. It has been recommended that one disorder, Short Chain Acyl-coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency, or SCAD, be eliminated from screening programs, due to a "spurious association between SCAD and symptoms. However, recent studies suggest that expanded screening is cost effective (see ACMG report page 94-95 and articles published in Pediatrics ' . Advocates are quick to point out studies such as these when trying to convince state legislatures to mandate expanded screening.

Expanded newborn screening is also opposed by among some health care providers who are concerned that effective follow-up and treatment may not be available, that false positive screening tests may cause harm, and issues of informed consent

Hernia and its treatment

A hernia is present at the site of the umbilicus (commonly called a navel, or belly button) in the newborn; although sometimes quite large, these hernias tend to resolve without any treatment by around the age of 5 years. Obstruction and strangulation of the hernia is rare because the underlying defect in the abdominal wall is larger than in an inguinal hernia of the newborn. The size of the base of the herniated tissued is inversely correlated with risk of strangulation (i.e. narrow base is more likely to strangulate).

Babies are prone to this malformation because of the process during fetal development by which the abdominal organs form outside the abdominal cavity, later returning into it through an opening which will become the umbilicus

Importantly this type of hernia must be distinguished from a paraumbilical hernia, which occurs in adults and involves a defect in the midline near to the umbilicus, and from omphalocele.

When the orifice is large (< 1 or 2 cm), 90% close within 3 years (some sources state 85% of all umbilical hernias, regardless of size), and if these hernias are asymptomatic, reducible, and don't enlarge, no surgery is needed (and in other cases it must be considered). In some communities mothers routinely push the small bulge back in and tape a coin over the palpable hernia hole until closure occurs. This practice is not medically recommended as there is a small risk of trapping a loop of bowel under part of the coin resulting in a small area of ischemic bowel. The use of bandages or other articles to continuously reduce the hernia is not evidence-based.

An umbilical hernia can be fixed 2 different ways. The surgeon can opt to stitch the walls of the abdominal or he/she can place mesh over the opening and stitch it to the abdominal walls. The latter is of a stronger hold and is commonly used for larger tears in the abdominal wall. Most surgeons will repair the hernia 6 weeks after the baby is born.

The seven things in postpartum the new mother had to know-3

4, to ensure new mom to have adequate rest time

Delivery process causes physically exhausted to new mothers. In the first day after birth, the most important thing is rest, to ensure the physical recovery. Now, many hospitals provide the rooms to allow baby and mother to stay together. The new father should take the responsibility for baby's diaper, to ensure that the new mother have sufficient rest.

5, go to the toilet as soon as possible

The new mother should drink plenty of water after natural birth. During the production process, the bladder and urethra obtained a lot of pressure by fetal head. Bladder’s function can help the recovery. Bladder over-filling will affect the contraction of the uterus, leading to postpartum hemorrhage.

6, eat vegetables to avoid constipation

Eating fruits and vegetables rich in dietary fiber is very useful for prevention and treatment of postpartum constipation. The new mothers should pay attention to the perineum care. The bathroom should equipped warm water rinse.

7, the new mother hyperhidrosis should pay attention to cleanliness

Postpartum sweating of new mother is more than the normal amount, especially during the sleep, and waking up. Postpartum sweating can often self-improved in a few days, this is a normal physiological phenomenon, not physically weak performance. Mothers should change underwear and bed sheets frequently. The room should be ventilated. Without fresh air, new mother easily get respiratory tract infection.

Prenatal stress

Prenatal stress (or prenatal maternal stress) is exposure of an expectant mother to distress, which can be caused by stressful life events or by environmental hardships. The resulting changes to the mother's hormonal and immune system may harm the fetus's (and after birth, the infant's) immune function and brain development.

Cure your stress naturally without therapy and drugs. Good for your baby and youself!
Cure your stress naturally without therapy and drugs. Good for your baby and youself!

The seven things in postpartum the new mother had to know-2

2, do not waste colostrum

The first day after birth the new mother will have a small amount of viscous, slightly yellow milk, which is colostrum. Colostrum contains large amounts of antibodies to protect babies against bacteria. It should be fed to the babies as much as possible to reduce the incidence of neonatal disease. This is can not be replaced by all other milks.

3, Breast-feeding may stimulate the brain behavior

Brian gives the signal to increase the secretion of milk. Mom must be breast-feeding as soon as possible, in order to form a nerve reflex to increase the secretion of milk. The new mother can also have some food to increase milk secretion such as peanuts, pot trotters, fish soup.

The first hour after delivery II

The first hour of the newborn

1,Get his first score

This is the first time in life the baby is tested, which is called the Apgar score. Mainly it is the score showing the overall situation of the newborn. The tests include the child's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex response, and in color reactions. The score does not predict whether their children will grow up healthy, or how smart they will be. It can only prompt the child to the medical staff how he adapt to the new world, if he needs help, etc.

2, See the world through one eye

Every child has his own pace to open his eyes and facing the new world. Some kids are ambitious, very urgent. Some children will need some time to adapt. Many mothers have noticed, when their babies have just come to this world, usually only opened one eye, "sweep" around. Don’t feel strange. This is one of the most unique tricks of baby.

Some of the newborns have the blood points in the eye whites, and have some facial swelling, mother. Do not worry. These are normally caused by squeezing by the birth canal during delivery. They will slowly disappear in a few days. In general, the child came by the caesarean section would not have these phenomena.

3, Newborn baby will peel too

The babies born before or on their due day will have a layer of fetal fat on the skin. When the fat is washed off, he may have some skin peeling. That is not because of the dry skin. It is a normal reaction for skin exposed in air for the first time. There are also some lanugo on baby's shoulders and back, which will fade out in 1-2 weeks.

4,Newly-born baby will also have rash

If you find tiny spots like freckles on baby, do not be scared, it is likely that they had herpes before birth, and these are leftovers. Asian children will also have a large piece of blue purple birthmark on their back and buttocks. It is called the Mongolian spot, which is the most common birthmarks, without any meaning, usually will disappear before school age. If there is a strange gender identity, do not worry, whether boy or girl, his/her breasts can occur a temporary increase. It is because of the impact by the large number of hormones getting from mommy when they are still inside. In most cases, they will back to normal within a week.

TIP: It takes time to sew

During childbirth, if the vulva through the lateral, or soft tissue are torn, it needs to be cared after delivery. New mothers do not be too worried, if the torn is small, the wound even may not need to be sutured.

Usually spray anesthesia is used as a painkiller. Doctors will explain to the new mother before the surgery suture. Many women will take a nap during the surgery, because after giving birth, although her feelings are very high, the body is already tired of.

Say “Goodbye” to stretch marks

After delivery, many new mommies have a common worry, the ugly skin stretch marks. How to say: "Googbye" to stretch marks?

Stretch marks are actually a special type of scar. Under normal circumstances, human skin elastic fiber and the rectus abdominis maintain the elasticity of skin, and within certain limits skin can be freely retractable. During pregnancy, mommy’s weight gains very fast, as well as the baby continuous growing in the abdomen, which makes the skin on the belly done over its limit. Thus, lots of collagen fibers in the skin are pulled off, and results in such scars. Besides the abdomen, the stretch marks will be found around the breast, inner thighs and buttocks.

At beginning, stretch marks usually are pink or purple-red irregular longitudinal cracks. Then, the color slowly fades until the post-partum, and eventually silver-white.

You will find that some expectant mothers produce a bunch of stretch marks during pregnancy, and some others’ skin remains smooth. Why? Part of the reason is that every one has different body conditions. Part of the reason is that those mommies know how to protect themselves from the stretch marks.

Here are four easy ways to prevent stretch marks. Since once stretch marks completely formed, it will be very difficult to get rid off and only slowly fade-out. Therefore, if you want to be completely stretch marks free, the most important thing is to do pregnancy prevention.

1. Increase skin elasticity

Before pregnancy, expectant mothers can do some physical exercise to increase the abdominal muscles and skin elasticity. Sit-ups, swimming, yoga are all good choices. During pregnancy, they should not stop exercising. Following doctors instruction, you can walk, swim, and do some gymnastics. Exercise during pregnancy can not only prevent stretch marks, but also increase muscle strength, and promote natural childbirth smoothly.

2. Control weight:

Expectant mothers who gain weight too quick will not only grow stretch marks, but also put the baby and their own health under risk. Maintaining steady weight gain during pregnancy is very important. In the first three months of pregnancy, expectant mother's weight should be increased by 1-2 kg. 4 months later, body weight per week should be increased by 0.5 kilograms. The best to control weight is to buy a weight scale at home, and measure the weight at about the same time everyday, say, in the morning. They can also draw a graph to keep control of their body weight changes.

Eat well: having a balanced diet is the key. Three meals a day with vegetables and fruits regularly, avoid eating too quickly which will increase the digestive burden and hurt the stomach. Stay away from high-fat, high sugar food, and avoid late-night snacks.

3. Moderate massage

The benefits of pregnancy massage are numerous. One of which is to increase the skin elasticity, prevent stretch marks from arising. Using some olive oil, baby oil to keep skin moist while massage will make it easy. If used in conjunction with certain professional massage oil specially designed for preventing stretch marks, the effect will be even better. Massage is a time consuming work. It needs to be kept from 3 months of pregnancy until 3 months of postpartum. It can effectively prevent stretch marks from deriving or dilute the formation of stretch marks.

Abdomen: starts from the navel in a clockwise direction, round and round, slowly draw the circle bigger and bigger.

Thigh: starting from the knee, through the thigh up into the rear hip.

Breast: From cleavage, using pulp from bottom to top, gently massage from the inside to the outside.

Each time, continues 10-20 minutes, twice a day. During the last few weeks, massage more times.

Fighting against stretch marks in three ways:

1, Postpartum desalination is very important: stretch marks after the birth of the baby will slowly fade out within a period of time, but it is almost impossible to eliminate completely. However, detail cares in life allows to make stretch marks are no longer deteriorating, and get faded.

2, Plastic surgery: If you are extremely bothered by stretch marks on the stomach, you can take advantage of a variety of medical method of diluting or reducing the appearance of stretch marks or scope. Pulsed light or a dye laser irradiation can accelerate the purple lines declining, while increasing collagen production, reducing the severity of stretch marks; laser micro-dermabrasion surgery can improve the scar tissue; acid can improve the skin color of the epidermis and thickness, but also make stretch marks appear less obvious; abdominal plastic surgery can easily remove stretch marks.

Attention: Before any medical surgery, make sure to consult your doctors in detail, don’t exchange your health for temporary beauty.

3, Diet, exercise and massage: after the birth of your baby pay attention to control diet and not overeat. Drinking more milk is a common misleading, because a balanced diet is much healthier than heavily count on one or few ingredients. Of course, do not forget to continue on appropriate exercise and massage, which can not only improve the relaxation of the abdomen, but also can control the further deterioration of stretch marks.

Four Tips of Beauty For New Mommies

Hey, new mommies, while you are carefully taking care of babies, please do not forget you own beauty. Here are 4 tips for new moms to become more beautiful during post-partum.

1, Rapid elimination of dark eye circles.

The new mother who takes care of baby is always very tired, and pays little care to herself. Thus dark eye circles appear. A few simple actions can help you: watch face with warm water in the morning and massage eyes with both hands clockwise for about 5 minutes. The massage can promote blood circulation, and the dark eye circles will instantly be relieved.

2, Yam therapy.

Chinese yam is rich in diosgenin (natural DHEA), the basic material containing a variety of hormones. It will promote endocrine hormone synthesis inside new moms’ bodies.

3, Restore gentle hands.

Hard housework and regular washing makes mommies’ hands reddening and covered with wrinkles. To reduce the symptom, just integrate 3 teaspoons of salt into a basin of warm water and soak your hands for about 5 minutes. It to helps the hands to restore their natural look; as to eliminate foot fatigue, soak your feet in warm salt water for a few minutes, and then rinse with cold water.

4, Teabag therapy.

Don’t throw away used teabag and the leftover cold tea. Gently brushing cold tea onto eyelashes with cotton swabs will help eyelashes growth effectively. Hurry, and have a try! Guaranteed to be the most economical and eco-friendly "eyelash growth liquid". Put the used tea bag on the eye will eliminate the dark eye circle.

Fitness with shapewear

Does post-natal obesity is your destiny?

Restoring your graceful pre-natal figure is just a dream?

The answer of course is NO!

Traditionally, people take gaining weight during pregnancy for granted. It is said that you need to eat twice as much during pregnancy to complement the two. It is regarded the only way to get adequate nutrients for your baby to conduct growth and development. However, adding too much weight during pregnancy, also contributed to your obesity in the future.

Based on studies over 795 women, scientists record their body weight changes before and after pregnancy, and continuously observing for a decade and found that: if too much weight is gained during pregnancy, and not lose within 6 months after giving the birth, then 8 to 10 years later, they still can not get rid of those body fat.

Usually physicians or nutritionists will recommend pregnant women during pregnancy: an increase of 11 kg body weight is appropriate. In the study follow-up period, if the weight gain during pregnancy less than the recommended weight, after 8-10 years, their body weight will increase an average of 4.1 kg; at the same time, if body weight increased as recommended during pregnancy, then their weight would be an increase of 6.5 kg; if body weight gained above the recommended figure during pregnancy, then after 8 to 10 years, they will gain an average of 8.4 kilograms. Moreover, if in the post-natal 6 months new mom returns to her pre-pregnancy weight, then the 8 to 10 years later, her weight of an average of 2.4 kilograms more; for those who can’t get post-natal weight down, then the 8 to 10 years will increase the average weight of 8.3 kilograms.

Breastfeeding benefits mothers postpartum weight-loss and their weight are less likely to increase. Breast-feeding 3 months or more will make even better result.The report found that normally new mothers postpartum 2000-2300 kcal daily intake of calories will not affect breast-feeding but only control weight. Modern women have very little problem of malnutrition during pregnancy and after childbirth, which reduces the importance of massive eating. Therefore, balanced nutrition and weight control becomes more important.

Schedule of shapewear wearing

6-month post-partum is the golden period of weight loss for new mommy. Due to mommy’s metabolic rate during this period is still high, and life habits have not been established, the effect of weight loss would be better. Therefore, within 6 months after childbirth was “the golden age” of weight loss.

Week 1 postpartum:

During the day: night wearable corset + tight pants designed for postpartum

Week 2 onwards:

During the day: waist clip, corset + tight pants for postpartum: and take off waist clip while sleep.

Week 3 till 6 months:

1. Daytime: waist clip, corset + post-natal or breathable Nagatsuka

2. During the day: whole body shapewear.

Remember: Postpartum you body is changed and needs different care from before, therefore, you need to prepare the shapewear especially designed for new mommies not for normal use. Then you will find your body will restore its former beauty unbelievably.

The most comprehensive collection of prenatal education -1

Pregnant Mommy are very care of unborn fetus, in addition to strong nutritional supply, they are very happy to conduct various types of prenatal education and do their best to give newborn babies a good starting point. What method of prenatal education should be and how to be the most scientific?

Music prenatal education

16th week of pregnancy,

Suggested that the mother choose soothing, gentle, bright melodies, gentle nature, there is regularity, rhythm is similar to mothers heartbeat, such as Mozart's EQ music, nature, rivers, streams the sound of birds singing insects are all a good choice. They can placate the fetus and regulate the day and night.

Mom should try to avoid listening to noisy or inappropriate music (the fetus does not like to hear high-frequency sound waves).

Prenatal touch

20th week of pregnancy,

Parents gently touch the fetus or gently tap the fetus through the pregnant belly to contact fetus to drive a formation of tactile stimulation of sensory nerves and the fetal brain development. Parents touch the fetus in the abdomen with a finger, the fetus will react. You can also touch with singing, to increase a love feeling of family.

Light Prenatal

32 weeks of pregnancy start

Visual development of the fetus approximately takes 36 weeks in order to respond to light stimulation. Sparking fetus head with flashlight which closely placed on belly, each time for 2 minutes, results in a strong visual function and distinction between day and night.

Prenatal Nutrition

start of pregnancy.

Must focus with a balanced diet and do weight management, targeted at different stages of pregnancy, do focus on type of nutritional supplement. Pregnancy 1 ~ 3 months → added folic acid and vitamin intake is easily digestible, light food, can reduce early pregnancy symptoms. → trimester pregnant women due to increased appetite, should pay attention to supplement high in protein, calcium, vegetable fat, nutritious food. → late pregnancy should be kept in water and salt intake and monitor weight gain.

The most comprehensive collection of prenatal education -2

Aesthetic Prenatal

20th week of pregnancy,

Arts can enhance people's sensibility; Mommy enjoy the beautiful things together with fetus, when the expectant mother feel beautiful, it is also indirectly conveyed to the baby!

Prenatal spirit

28th week of pregnancy,

Mommies are always full of imagination to outline the baby's image during the pregnancy, and surprisely, the images will be somehow similar to the unborn fetuses. Mommy is sometimes very worried about fetus and afraid she/he will be born birth with physical disabilities. It is better to posted in the room some cute baby portraits or photographs, which can help pregnant women maintain a happy mood.

Prenatal Dialogue

24th week of pregnancy,

Father and mother should talk with fetus every day. Say good morning when wake up and say good night when go sleeping. This is not only the focus of language prenatal education, but also key to the establishment of parent-child relationship.

Prenatal exercise

20 weeks of pregnancy to 36 weeks

Mommy must master good movement and exercise.

Pregnant women can do a little gymnastics, when feel the fetal movement, body relaxed, with both hands from top to bottom, left to right, repeatedly gently touching the abdomen, and sometimes can also use your fingers to do a soft reduction, and you can feel the fetus gently creeping forward with the pressure . In addition, the right amount of exercise each day will help natural delivery, and reduce the production perinea muscle damage.

Experts remind Mommies that do not be too tense, strict by the requirements for prenatal care, because emotional tension can cause counter-productive. The most important thing is to keep happy. This is the best way of prenatal education.

Happy baby comes from good prenatal education

It is generally believed that babies like crying, and this is a miss-understanding. Most babies with good prenatal education are emotional stable, do not like crying, even be the relatively quiet at night. They have strong abilities to accept new things, to learn language early and grow smoothly. On the contrary, if prenatal care was carried out not very well, the babies do like crying, crying often at night. Looking after such babies will be time-consuming.

Well, what content included in good prenatal education? After knowing the pregnancy, the good prenatal education is to convey the love to unborn babies, to communicate with each other. On the contrary, the couple keep arguing all day, or pregnant mother bearing too much pressure, all won’t lead to a success of a prenatal education. Receiving good prenatal education, babies will be born with a surprised right-brain capability. It is very important to parents.

What is the surprised right-brain capability? If the mother and baby during pregnancy can communicate with each other, the baby will get the same sense of unity as the mother, then the baby will have the telepathy capability. The so-called telepathy is able to communicate with each other without language ability. Under the action of the right brain is the soul of the brain, telepathy is the right-brain based ability.

Due to the neglect of the role of the soul, today’s education had not be able to explore the great natural potential of human beings.

If you do not understand the prenatal education, take care newborn babies will be a really hard work. On the contrary, if you are able to communicate with your baby during pregnancy, not only give your baby a superior ability, but also yourself a happy parenting life.

Mothers and can cause abdominal decompression a genius baby

Smart and cute baby birth is every parent's wish. South African experts have found a way to create a genius baby: oxygen addition method. However, is this method really useful?

Kazakhin, professor of eugenics, South Africa, has found that in the last 10 days of pregnancy, a method of implementation of 30 minutes per day of oxygen addition, you can increase the probability of giving a birth of gifted children. The method is that to put pregnant women's body into the bottle-shaped devices, so that the air around the abdomen of pregnant women was reduced to the atmospheric pressure 1 / 5, thus reducing oppression to the fetus from the abdominal wall. This will result in an increase of the blood into the brain of the fetus. As blood flow increases, the supply of oxygen to the fetus also had increased

The babies born with this method can answer the call in the age of 13 months, in the age of 18 months, they can speak more than 200 sentences comparing normal birth babies who only can speak average 6 sentences, which shows how important the oxygen to the fetus. Such methods can be achieved amazing results with combined a proper prenatal care. The reliability of this method still nee to be confirmed for a period, it can not be immediately implemented, but one thing is that pregnant women have been identified that breath of fresh air, to increase oxygen uptake does affect fetal brain development.

In addition, pregnancy exercise can increase oxygen uptake. Typically, the fetus uptake oxygen or nutrients through the umbilical cord. If the mother can be fully intake of oxygen, fetal brain can be activated. However, it's not suitable for pregnant women to do strenuous exercise. Sense of balance is poor because during pregnancy, joint are also more vulnerable. Ideal exercise is swimming without weight-bearing for the entire pregnancy.

Great events for small fetus -5

44 pregnant 32 weeks, baby had to wait a half-liter of urine a day, but the good news is you do not need to change diaper.

45 There is no smell from the air in uterus, but your baby developed sense of smell from the pregnancy of 32 weeks..

46 from 32 ~ 35 weeks pregnant, fetal weight increase to about 250 grams per week.

47 at this stage, your baby's brain development is very fast, so head circumference increased by 2.5 centimeters every week.

48 fetal lung development is also very fast - babies born in 34 weeks may have to be breathing under assistance, but the 36-week premature child will be able to breathe himself.

49 Usually an unborn baby is 35 weeks in pregnancy weight 2.5 kg. Everyday you walk around with such a big man, no wonder you feel back pain!

50 Fetal sebum is a smooth material, wrapped in the surface of the body to keep body moisture, protect the skin and help she slip into the birth canal. Sebum in the third trimester will be washed away, the traces of fat tire can be found in most of babies at birth, however, it can not be found on later-born babies. In fact, if birth over the due date, baby’s skin will be dry and the traces of their own nails likely to be found on baby’s body.

51 there is evidence in fetal brain scans shows that baby can have a dream when she sleep from about 32 weeks pregnant.

52, the last week of pregnancy, inside the digestive system of baby filled with meconium - a by dead skin cells, lanugo, intestine, waster material from liver and gall bladder- a dark green black thing. This is a baby's first stool, the most viscous, most difficult to deal with you have ever met.

53 fetal bones became hard, but the skull is still quite soft, in order she can smoothly through the birth canal. Therefore, if the baby was born with a conical shaped head, do not be worry.

54 pregnant 36 weeks, the fetus's head began to move into the pelvis, if the midwife can only touch the baby’s 2/5 head above the pelvis, then you have to be prepared, because the baby will due soon.

55 35-week-old fetus hearing has been fully developed, so remember to talk with her.

56 The survival rate of the baby, who was born in 35 weeks old, can reach 99%.

57 In the past more than nine months, the placenta gave the baby all the energy she needed. In 40 weeks, pregnant can be a big dinner plate size, 2 ~ 3 cm thick, weighing 0.6 kilograms.

58 Some babies are born bald, while others have a thick and long hair - baby's hair can be up to 2.5 cm.

59 to the end of pregnancy, uterine size increased 500 ~ 1000 times than before.

60 Only 5% of babies are born on the predetermined due date. Do not be impatient if over due, most pregnant women will give natural birth after 42 weeks pregnancy.

Great events for small fetus -4

29 pregnant 21 weeks when the fetus grows to a size of a banana, and the weight is similar to a banana.

30 pregnant 21 weeks, the fetus can identify the flavor of the food you eat through the amniotic fluid, especially sweet and bitter taste.

31 experts can successfully implement the operation to compensate inherent deficiencies for unborn fetus in womb, such as the hole on the heart. And the operation can be carried out without opening the uterus. Minimally invasive techniques have made great contribution to this.

32 In the latter half of pregnancy, your uterus will be enlarged 1 cm a week or so.

33 pregnant 24 weeks, the brain of fetus started activation. Her brain wave patterns are similar to newborn baby’s. Studies have shown that she has begun to consciously think. She is able to differentiate the voices of their parents, if you repeatedly put her to listen to a song, she will remember after the birth.

34 pregnancy 24 weeks is a very important turning point in the pregnancy. The fetus has been able to "live", and if give a birth at this time, the survival rate can reach about 39%.

35, when 24 weeks pregnant, you always feel there is something to tap your belly. Oh, this is baby does a burp.

36 pregnant 24 weeks, the baby has her own daily routines, but do not get too excited, her daily routine is likely to opposite to yours.

37 fetus in the womb to drink amniotic fluid, of course, very small amount for each time. Amniotic fluid will be refilled every three hours, so even if the baby drank a lot of amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid volume inside the womb will not be reduced.

38 pregnant 27 weeks, the baby opened her eyes, but until the birth, her vision has not been very well developed and can only stare at one thing to see, and can only see things within 15 cm.

39 from 28 ~ 32 weeks pregnant, fetal growth is about 500 grams per week (equal to the weight of a regular sized box of margarine). Now you know why you always can not fit yourself into the clothes.

40 Approximately 28 weeks of pregnancy, due to the space is more and more narrow, the baby began to curl up into a ball and to make the most classic fetal position.

41 The temperature of amniotic fluid is about 37.5 ℃, slightly higher than body temperature, to ensure that the fetus to be warm enough, while the fetus is also working hard to increase her fat reserves in order to not feel cold after the birth.

42 The increase of your weight is not fully because of your baby – in 30 weeks pregnant, your placenta weighs about 450 grams, it conducts about 500 milliliters of blood transmission per minuet into your baby’s body.

43 to 35 weeks of pregnancy, most fetuses have been moved to the fetal position at birth. There are several fetal positions:

Vertical production-type refers to baby lying in the womb vertically, head down, butt down, or feet down (breech).

Horizontal production style refers to baby lying horizontally.

Oblique production style refers to baby lying obliquely.

Breech presentation, transverse and oblique style production can result in dystocia, but the fetus can also be automatically changed the fetal position under the guidance of a doctor. To 40 weeks, 95% of the normal fetus is upside down fetal position, and only around 4% will be breech fetal position, while the horizontal or oblique style production accounted for only less than 1%.

Pregnant mother alert: eating too much fruit can cause dystocia

Fruit is always considered as a healthy food. Therefore, many pregnant women have such misunderstanding that the more fruit the better, someone even have fruits as dinner. According to health experts, new research shows that: over taking fruit will cause dystocia.

In general, fruit is rich in carbohydrates, water, cellulose, and a small amount of protein, fat, vitamin A, B and minerals. However, they content less the crude fiber and specific nutrients than green leafy vegetables roots, plus lack vitamin B12, contained incomprehensive amino acid. Long-term reliance on fruit as the sole source of nutrition will lead to a lot of ills, such as anemia, especially to women.

Nutrition experts suggested that pregnant women need to eat a variety of different types of food to achieve nutritional balance. Pregnant women should not use fruit as a main food. One rule should be followed: diverse selection of fresh seasonal products. 1-3 fruits every meal, vegetables, daily intake of 400 grams, including green leafy vegetables should be accounted for 1 / 2.

One serving of fruit after a daily meal will give pregnant women sufficient nutrient. In recent years, according to clinical findings, pregnant women, excessive consumption of fruit is apt to cause hyperlipidemia. In addition, there is an upward trend leading to gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is that pregnant women during pregnancy has abnormal glucose metabolism, which results in elevated blood sugar. Usually within two months after giving birth, the blood sugar level will back to normal. Its etiology is in majority because of the poor diet. Excessive eating of fruit is the biggest incentive. If Gestational diabetes is not controlled in time, will first affect the mother's health, then, some patients with gestational diabetes, will have type 2 diabetes after 5 to 10 years. Gestational diabetes is also likely to cause infection during pregnancy, miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth and polyhydramnios; bringing huge harm to fetus development. Pregnant women with high blood sugar level easily have a huge fetus, which causes birth difficulties, increases dystocia and the likelihood of postpartum hemorrhage and put her life under risk. So, we must be cautious.

Prenatal vitamins

Prenatal vitaminsPrenatal vitamins are vitamin supplements intended to be taken before and during pregnancy and during postnatal lactation. Although not intended to replace a healthy diet, prenatal vitamins provide women of child bearing age with nutrients recognized by the various health organizations including the American Dietetic Association as helpful to for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

Prenatal vitamins are similar to other multivitamins, but do contain different amounts of specific nutrients to better suit the needs of an expecting mother. Vitamins such as folic acid, calcium and iron are in higher concentrations while nutrients such as Vitamin A are reduced to reflect the current understanding of the role that these compounds play in fetal development.

The increase dosage of folic acid or folates refects the American Dietetic Associations position that women should consume “400 μg per day of synthetic folic acid from fortified foods (cereals and other grains), supplements or both, in addition to consuming folate from foods in a varied diet.” Often prenatal vitamins also have a reduced dosage of vitamins that may be detrimental to the fetus when taken in high doses (such as Vitamin A). Prenatal vitamins are available both over the counter in retail stores as well as by prescription from medical professionals. Although prescription vitamins are often covered by insurance, the relative potency of prescription-grade products are typically not significantly different than those available through retail. Differences in prescription versus retail vitamins do however exist in consistency and quality level, as well as the relative bioavailability of some specific ingredients. For example, many prescripton prenatal vitamins will contain a more bioavailable form of folate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) also known under the brand Merck pharmaceutical brand, Metafolin.

Many women have difficulty tolerating prenatal vitamins or experience constipation as a result of the high iron content. Due to tolerance challenges, the prenatal vitamin industry has developed a multitude of dosage forms to meet the needs and tolerances of expecting mothers. The most common form of prenatal vitamin is the compressed tablet which is available through all channels and at various quality levels. Category leaders such as Ther-Rx utilize this as the dosage form of choice. Other organizations within the category offer products in a variety of dosage forms such as liquids, prenatal vitamin soft chews, vitamin chewables, and even jellied prenatal vitamins.

In addition to the actual vitamin, many prenatal manufacturers have chosen to include the omega-3 fatty acid, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their product, either as an ingredient in the formula, or as a complementary softgel pill. Although explicitly in many formulas to support neural development, the omega-3 fatty acids are used by both mother and fetus to create the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane.

How to supplement folic acid?

Folic acid is very important to fetal development. A lack of folic acid can cause fetal neural tube defects, as well as miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight and other issues. Green vegetables, animal liver, egg yolk, beans, etc. contain folic acid.

Pork asparagus roll

folic acid: 89 micrograms

Ingredients: pork, asparagus, cooking wine, ginger, garlic, salt, curry powder, black pepper.


1.Put cooking wine, ginger, minced garlic into container with pork pieces and marinated 10-15 minutes.

2. Wash asparagus, remove the root and peeled, cut into medium segment.

3. Wrap asparagus segment with pork made in step 1

4. Sprinkled with curry powder, salt and black pepper and put rolls into the oven to bake about 7 minutes.

Nutrition Notes

Asparagus is in the first place of containing folic acid , the best way to cook asparagus is put them into boiling water and put some olive oil and ready to serve. The purpose of backing is to remove the fat in the pork.

Beef and cabbage

folic acid: 41 micrograms

Ingredients: cabbage, beef, sesame oil, salt, pepper, ginger.


1.Put cabbage into microwave oven and heat 2 minutes and cut them into squares.

2. Prepare a pot with boiling water, add beef, ginger, when the beef are ready and slice them

3. Put the cabbage, sliced beef on a plate, mix sesame oil, salt, pepper powder

Nutrition Notes:

Cabbage is rich in folic acid, Microwave heating or boiling are correct cooking methods. High-temperature frying, boiling and frying are easy to destroy nutrients in vegetables. Beef is not only a high-quality source of animal protein, but also rich in iron, magnesium, potassium and other minerals.